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Key Passive Solar Design Concepts
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There are four primary passive solar energy configurations: The four elements are direct solar gain, indirect solar gain, isolated solar gain and passive cooling.

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Passive Solar Building Design
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Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the sun''s daily and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems. Passive solar building design is one part of green building design, and does not include active systems such as mechanical ventilation or photovoltaics, nor does it include life cycle analysis.

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Green building
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Green building is the practice of increasing the efficiency with which buildings use resources — energy, water, and materials — while reducing building impacts on human health and the environment during the building''s lifecycle, through better siting, design, construction, operation, maintenance, and removal.

Green buildings are designed to reduce the overall impact of the built environment on human health and the natural environment by:

Efficiently using energy, water, and other resources
Protecting occupant health and improving employee productivity
Reducing waste, pollution and environmental degradation
A similar concept is natural building, which is usually on a smaller scale and tends to focus on the use of natural materials that are available locally. Other commonly used terms include sustainable design and green architecture.

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Composting Toilets
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A composting toilet is any system that converts human waste into an organic compost and usable soil, through the natural breakdown of organic matter into its essential minerals. Micro and macro organisms do this over time, working through various stages of oxidation and sometimes localized pockets of anaerobic breakdown.

Self-contained composting toilets complete the composting "in-situ,", while "central unit" ones flush waste to a remote composting unit below the toilet. Vacuum-flush systems can flush horizontally or upward.

Some composting toilets have a large compartment below the toilet (in another living space). A composting toilet with this feature and sloped composting room for the compartment is called a "Clivus Multrum" composting toilet. Most of these separate sloped compartments require a great deal of space (more than a traditional toilet). "In situ" and "central unit toilets" however can be little larger than a traditional toilet.

Finally, a special type of DIY-composting toilet is the double alternating pit compost toilet. Double alternating pit composting toilets or "fossa alterna" as they are sometimes called work similarly to regular composting toilets with separated compartment. However, the faeces compartment is just a pit (thus not contained in a bucket, ...) and after when the pit is full, another one is used and the contents of the first one is used for fertilisation purposes.

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