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Experimental Solar Power
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A solar updraft tower (also known as a solar chimney or solar tower) consists of a large greenhouse that funnels into a central tower. As sunlight shines on the greenhouse, the air inside is heated, and expands. The expanding air flows toward the central tower, where a turbine converts the air flow into electricity. A 50 kW prototype was constructed in Ciudad Real, Spain and operated for eight years before decommissioning in 1989.

A solar pond is a pool of salt water (usually 1–2 m deep) that collects and stores solar energy. Solar ponds were first proposed by Dr. Rudolph Bloch in 1948 after he came across reports of a lake in Hungary in which the temperature increased with depth. This effect was due to salts in the lake''s water, which created a "density gradient" that prevented convection currents. A prototype was constructed in 1958 on the shores of the Dead Sea near Jerusalem. The pond consisted of layers of water that successively increased from a weak salt solution at the top to a high salt solution at the bottom. This solar pond was capable of producing temperatures of 90 °C in its bottom layer and had an estimated solar-to-electric efficiency of two percent.

 Thermoelectric, or "thermovoltaic" devices convert a temperature difference between dissimilar materials into an electric current. First proposed as a method to store solar energy by solar pioneer Mouchout in the 1800s, thermoelectrics reemerged in the Soviet Union during the 1930s. Under the direction of Soviet scientist Abram Ioffe a concentrating system was used to thermoelectrically generate power for a 1 hp engine. Thermogenerators were later used in the US space program as an energy conversion technology for powering deep space missions such as Cassini, Galileo and Viking. Research in this area is focused on raising the efficiency of these devices from 7–8% to 15–20%.

Space solar power systems would use a large solar array in geosynchronous orbit to collect sunlight and beam this energy in the form of microwave radiation to receivers (rectennas) on Earth for distribution. This concept was first proposed by Dr. Peter Glaser in 1968 and since then a wide variety of systems have been studied with both photovoltaic and concentrating solar thermal technologies being proposed. Although still in the concept stage, these systems offer the possibility of delivering power approximately 96% of the time. In 2008, John C. Mankins, a former NASA scientist, successfully used radio waves to send solar power between two Hawaiian islands in an experiment funded by the Discovery Channel. Mankins claims that this "proves the technology exists to beam solar power from satellites back to Earth."